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What Next? as a movement is concerned that the White Paper has not attempted to accommodate the significant complexities relating to artistic expression and harmful content. Nuance, ambiguity, satire, irony and the creation of ‘harmful’ characters should all be explicitly considered, with measures and provision put in place to ensure that no artistic work is censored or discouraged due to the creation of a hostile environment to free expression.
Question 1: This government has committed to annual transparency reporting. Beyond the measures set out in this White Paper, should the government do more to build a culture of transparency, trust and accountability across industry and, if so, what?
Supporting the right to artistic freedom
Supporting the right to artistic freedom of expression is an integral part of What Next?’s mission to create the best possible conditions for art and culture to thrive in this country.
Artistic use of ‘harmful’ content
Whilst we acknowledge that there is a need to manage online harms where illegal activity is taking place, and to safeguard children where necessary, we are concerned that the measures set out in the White Paper fail to recognise artists’ legal use of harmful content as a vital source of subject matter. Our appendix lists just some of contemporary plays and other artworks. that use content that would potentially fall within the scope of the online harms, and that could be wrongly caught up in regulation, take down and possible penalties if the plans set out in the White Paper are taken up.
Complexity, ambiguity, nuance, satire
We are concerned that the White Paper has not attempted to accommodate the significant complexities relating to artistic expression and harmful content. Nuance, ambiguity, satire, irony and the creation of ‘harmful’ characters should all be explicitly considered, with measures and provision put in place to ensure that no artistic work is censored or discouraged due to the creation of a hostile environment to free expression.
Freedom for artists to push boundaries
‘Art is about the discovery of the unknown and unimagined. Artists will innovate, and push boundaries.’ Further on ACE states that ‘we want to offer arts and cultural organisations the commitment and freedom that allows them to experiment and take risks.’ The proposals in the White Paper could create an environment in which artists do not feel free to push boundaries and take risks.
Fuelling a culture of caution
This question goes to the heart of our concerns that the existing proposals will create a culture of mistrust and lack of transparency. Decisions to censor work could be taken outside a framework of legal accountability: by companies, platforms or by the independent regulator: leading to increased censorship of artists and art. The imposition of heavy fines on, and potential criminal action against, senior executives of companies could fuel a culture of over-caution, where perfectly legal artistic work exploring the harms within the scope of this White Paper, could be taken down to avoid getting caught up in the regulatory framework.
Double standards will undermine trust
Artists are skilled at pushing the boundaries of what is acceptable and legal, whilst remaining within the bounds of the law. We are concerned that challenging, provocative yet perfectly legal artistic expression that is acceptable in the offline world, will fall foul of regulation online. This could drastically limit what can be expressed by artists, many of who rely almost entirely on the internet to promote their work; it would also impact negatively on the debate that artwork naturally generates. We therefore urge the government to apply existing legislation, rather than creating any new law to ensure that the new regulation doesn’t outlaw legal expression.
Transparent, rights approach to build trust
Artists increasingly use the internet as their most important tool to access an audience, opportunity and livelihood. The internet opens up unprecedented reach for artists at all stages of their careers and brings into play, not only the rights of artists and audience to free expression and the free exchange of ideas without interference from the state, but also the economic rights of the artists. Unfortunately, the recommendations in this White Paper could render multiple platforms, currently available to artists, useless and could be in violation of multiple rights, if artistic content was to be removed. To build trust with the arts and cultural sector, transparency reporting should ensure that companies are implementing regulations in a way that takes human rights, and in particular, rights to freedom of expression, cultural and economic rights, into account.
Balance between safety and freedom
We believe that, in the bid to make the UK the safest place in the world to be online, the White Paper has lost a proportionate sense of balance and more work needs to be done to create a more nuanced and flexible solution.
Respecting rights and international law
We would like to draw attention to the international legal instruments that should be taken into account when drafting this legislation: The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rightsarticle 15 (3) under which States ‘undertake to respect the freedom indispensable for…creative activity’ and in article 19 (2) of ICCPR, which states that ‘the right to freedom of expression includes the freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds “in the form of art’.
Existing guidance on rights-based approach
We are concerned that the current proposals don’t take a strong enough stance to protect and promote existing legislation and rights framework. We therefore promote the important role of the rights approach to regulation as put forward by David Kaye, U.N. Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Expression, in the first-ever U.N. report that examines the regulation of user-generated online content. The Special Rapporteur examines the role of States and social media companies in providing an enabling environment for freedom of expression and access to information online.
We draw attention to the recommendation from U.N. Special Rapporteur, David Kaye’s, report on regulation of user-generated online content:
‘States should refrain from adopting models of regulation where government agencies, rather than judicial authorities, become the arbiters of lawful expression. They should avoid delegating responsibility to companies as adjudicators of content, which empowers corporate judgment over human rights values to the detriment of users.’
On transparency reporting, Kaye’s report recommends: ‘States should publish detailed transparency reports on all content-related requests issued to intermediaries and involve genuine public input in all regulatory considerations.’ The transparency reporting would, in the context of this report, aim to demonstrate how the regulator had not acted in violation of rights and international law.
Accountability and Artificial Intelligence
Given the massive volume of text and imagery that is uploaded every hour on larger platforms, the task of moderating content unavoidably falls to AI. There is a growing body of evidence of AI’s failure to effectively manage the legal, subtle, ironic, provocative and satirical language and images created by artists. There is also evidence of the in-built bias within many of the algorithms that are used to manage these processes. Human accountability is needed to differentiate between the use of harmful subject matter to explore and expose difficult content, and harm itself. The White Paper should, at the earliest stage, take properly into account how regulation would be delivered – whether by DCMS, Big Tech, the Police, the proposed regulator, or other; and to ensure that there is capacity and associated resource to deliver an agreed, effective and proportionate level of regulation.
Lack of clarity in the regulation could lead to lack of accountability
Attention needs to be paid to ensuring clarity, which is challenging given the complexity of the task. Rather than reinventing the wheel, the Bill could make use of the excellent work already done by UN Special Rapporteur, David Kaye – see below. We are extremely concerned that ‘harm is not defined within the Paper. We believe this ambiguity is a significant and highly problematic issue.
What protection for freedom of expression is set out by the white paper?
We welcome the report’s assurance that:
The regulator will also have an obligation to protect users’ rights online, particularly rights to privacy and freedom of expression. It will ensure that the new regulatory requirements do not lead to a disproportionately risk-averse response from companies that unduly limits freedom of expression, including by limiting participation in public debate. Its regulatory action will be required to be fair, reasonable and transparent.
However, we strongly believe that the statement needs to go further and would need to take full and explicit account of artistic expression that deals with harmful content. Some kind of ‘fair use’ style exemption that acknowledges the multiple legitimate, if provocative and challenging, ways that artists use ‘harmful’ content.
More time is needed to develop this policy and legislation to ensure that the proposals deliver on trust, transparency and accountability.
On the 15th of March, the Cabinet Office published a public call for evidence into Covid Status Certification Review. This consultation has a deadline of the 29th March 2021. We have created these draft notes as an aid to anyone in our movement wishing to make a response to the consultation.
What Next? believes that the introduction of Covid-19 certification would have a significant impact on the cultural sector and could impact on our ability to deliver for years to come. Individuals could potentially have to use digital certification to join the workforce, or to participate in, or be an audience for culture. There are no timescales included in the Review, and so these mechanisms could be in place for several years.
The arts and cultural sector is not uniform. For every large building that relies on ticket sales, there is a small community project that works with people for whom a digital certification would be a barrier to their engagement. The economic ecology includes a mix of commercial, philanthropic and public funding in different quantities for different organisations. Similarly, the ‘re-opening’ narrative does not fit everyone, as many providers have continued working through Covid-19 (see appendix 1).
This is a complex issue which does not lend itself to a binary or unified position; what will enable one organisation will actively, negatively affect another. It is essential that those making the decisions on ways forward hear the nuanced views of our sector and understand the different and competing demands of different arts and cultural organisations and individuals: looking through an equality, rights and ethical lens as much as the critical economic one.
The economic need of many in the cultural and creative industries is not in dispute. It has been well documented, and many venues have made, and continue to make staff redundancies and reductions to their offer, which make a return to their previous operating models look extremely uncertain.
This economic lens cannot be under-weighted in making plans for the future. It concerns the return to work to the 40% of the sector which has been made redundant, and to the thousands of freelancers who have lost or reduced livelihoods as a result of COVID-19.
We believe that there is strong evidence that an economic recovery supported solely by certification, and without other measures, would be at the cost of the diversity of audiences, workforce and participants, and diversity of the arts and cultural content that is created.
We have heard strong evidence that the impact on diversity would significantly prevent organisations from delivering effectively against their charitable missions, and against their funding conditions: from trusts and foundations, from local authorities, from Arts Council England and other Arms-Length Bodies, and from their recent Cultural Recovery Fund grants. It would impact on their ability to deliver against community wellbeing and cultural strategies and to the Arts Council’s forthcoming Let’s Create strategy. Those organisations which are charities could find themselves in contravention of their agreements with the Charity Commission.
We believe that there is an opportunity within this consultation, and more widely, for the government and the cultural sector to reframe the questions that are being asked of us, and to ask: ‘What resources, tools and approaches do we need to deliver sustainable, equitable, inclusive arts and culture over the next year?’.
We believe that the structure of this certification consultation risks reducing the complex decisions and processes that will be required to the introduction of a single measure.
The cultural sector’s transition through and beyond the Covid-19 pandemic must be rooted in our duty of care: to our workforce, to our audiences and participants and to our wider communities. The sole introduction of certification does not reflect the critical need to build trust and relationships at every stage of that transition: whether it is reopening a building, reconvening a youth group, or delivering a festival. To build trust we must collectively acknowledge our shared and different experiences of the last year, and slowly re-engage with one another: recognising that some of our practices will be irreversibly changed – and sometimes for the better. This inclusive approach will have potential costs; from supporting the mental health of staff, to hiring clinical colleagues to administer regular tests.
Over the last year, many people have expressed their intention and their belief in ‘building back better’. They have publicly acknowledged systemic inequality, and the barriers that exist for many individuals in society in accessing the arts and culture. We believe that this intention will be actively undermined if certification is the sole mechanism used to transition through Covid-19.
The 7 Inclusive Principles document gives cultural organisations and individuals the tools to approach Covid-19 recovery and delivery through the lens of Disability and relevant Equality Legislation and supports the industry to make decisions inclusively, to go beyond compliance and celebrate diversity. These principles should be central to any Covid-19 transition strategy and apply in all possible future contexts.
Evidence from our sector academics at Indigo Ltd and The Audience Agency clearly shows that certification is not the key to an immediate return to ‘full houses’ in the next few months. Instead, we will need to follow the strategies above, and this may mean that the cultural sector continues to need to be economically supported for a short period. We believe that a relatively small further investment now will protect and build on that which has already supported the sector through the pandemic, and will, in the longer term, support a much more effective financial recovery.
What we want:
A statement for the UK - Throughout August more than 1,000 people took Inc Arts’ #BAMEOver survey, and on 4th September 2020 over 250 people came together to reset the terms of reference for people with lived experience of racism. Here are our preferred terms of reference for people in the UK. We urge you to use them and share widely.
Throughout August more than 1,000 people took Inc Arts’ #BAMEOver survey, and on 4th September 2020 over 250 people came together to reset the terms of reference for people with lived experience of racism.
We set out to answer the question, ‘What do we want to be called?’
Through our discussion we’ve come up with a guide to terminology, for use by everyone who wants to be an effective ally and wants to avoid causing further harm through the use of casual and inaccurate language.
Here are our preferred terms of reference for people in the UK. We urge you to use them and share widely.
Seven Inclusive Principles for Arts & Cultural Organisations working safely through COVID-19 to complement the suite of guidance documents already issued by UK Governments and sector support organisations. The Seven Principles offer practical guidance to arts and cultural organisations to support disabled artists, audiences, visitors, participants and employees.
Campaigning cultural organisations We Shall Not Be Removed, Ramps on the Moon, Attitude is Everything, Paraorchestra and What Next? have joined together to create a new guide for the arts and entertainment sectors to support disability inclusion.
Here are Seven Inclusive Principles for Arts & Cultural Organisations working safely through COVID-19 to complement the suite of guidance documents already issued by UK Governments and sector support organisations. The Seven Principles offer practical guidance to arts and cultural organisations to support disabled artists, audiences, visitors, participants and employees.
We want arts and culture at the heart of our society, and in the past, we’ve used a number of different strategies to ensure that it is part of the political debate surrounding our general elections. This briefing gives you a list of the some of the key actions that you can take.
The Bacc for the Future campaign, the Cultural Learning Alliance and What Next? has launched Arts in Schools, an advocacy toolkit designed to inform, help and inspire advocates to take action against the downward trend of the arts in schools.
Arts in Schools is a useful toolkit for arts activists and teachers to refer to and use when advocating and championing arts education. The pack includes vital information and advice to help make the case to keep arts in schools, including how to write letters to local MPs and Councillors, the National Schools Commissioner and members of the Education Select Committee.
Download the arts advocacy toolkit using the link at the bottom of the page or visit www.baccforthefuture.com/campaign-resources.html for more information.
At the heart of the report is a call for a radical but pragmatic new approach to understanding and enabling cultural opportunity. It is argued that cultural opportunities are comprised of a far broader range of freedoms than access to already existing publicly funded arts – the primary focus of current cultural policy
The All-Party Parliamentary Group on Arts, Health and Wellbeing (APPGAHW) was formed in 2014. Our aim is to improve wareness of the benefits that the arts can bring to health and wellbeing, and to stimulate progress towards making these benefits a reality all across the country.
Britain has a rich and varied cultural offering: it is known internationally for outstanding arts and heritage attractions, from world class museums, galleries and theatres, to heritage sites and attractions which are the focal point of local communities. Our national treasures range from old masters and West End shows, to contemporary dance and cutting-edge festivals. In the last Parliament, our predecessors considered the work of the Arts Council England, and concluded that there had been an arts funding imbalance in favour of London at the expense of tax payers and lottery players in other parts of the country. We wanted to follow up on this inquiry to examine how the culture sector throughout the country is coping with the current difficult economic situation.
The Cultural Education Challenge asks art and cultural organisations, educational institutions and local authorities to come together to drive a joined-up art and cultural offer locally, to share resources and bring about a more coherent and visible delivery of cultural education through Cultural Education Partnerships.
Councils have been the unsung heroes of arts funding for decades. Town Halls across the nation are under unprecedented pressure to reduce budgets and deal with increased demands in areas such as social care, but even so our analysis shows the arts have been cut disproportionately in the last five years compared to council services overall (despite the fact that investment in the arts accounts on average for less than ½p in every £1 spent by local authorities in England).
This report is the starting point for a conversation about how the UK’s exit from the EU can deliver the best outcome for arts and culture. It encompasses a survey the Arts Council undertook with more than 1,000 artists and cultural organisations, assesses those responses against other available evidence, and attempts to highlight the most important issues.
The full report, including reports from our events and summaries of reports and submissions, has been sent to members as a members-only benefit. But you can read the introductory words from Sir John Sorrell, our chair, and John Kampfner, chief executive, and see a snapshot of the last 12 months here.
This document brings together stakeholders from across the creative industries to highlight the ways in which a vibrant and stable night-time economy underpin the success of creative hubs all over the UK. It includes comment from a range of organisations and businesses, from auction houses to theatres and galleries, who are either part of the night-time economy or are associated with it.
This report responds to the government's green paper 'Building our Industrial Strategy'. It demonstrates the role the creative industries play in the modern economy and how a UK industrial strategy can use them to deliver growth to all sectors, nations and regions.
A resource by the New Local Government Network about Local Authorities supporting local art and culture.
This toolkit was created in 2014 to highlight some of the challenges and opportunities of working more closely with Local Authorities.
Our focus on engaging MPs continues but this time with a focus on the local picture. This resource is about engaging your local MPs with top tips, step by step guidance and some useful key facts.
A 2017 publication from the Cultural Learning Alliance.
The knowledge, skill and experience made possible by the performing and visual arts, film, museums, libraries, heritage and exploring the built environment, are essential to young people’s development. Through cultural learning, young people are encouraged to explore other cultures, past and present, and inspired to contribute to the arts and culture of the future.
An ambition to achieve, throughout England, both equity in access to opportunities for participation and learning locally and excellence in training, production and presentation.
Understanding the value of art & culture presents the outcomes of the AHRC’s Cultural Value Project which looked at how we think about the value of the arts and culture to individuals and to society. This report sets out the often striking findings of the Project’s work. Some 70 original pieces of work collectively make up the Cultural Value Project – a mixture of new research, critical reviews of the literature and specialist workshops.
Local Government and Culture working together.
Joining the dots across sectors. Notes from a meeting that took place in December 2014
This document details the case for culture and the arguments, asks and priorities that the National What Next? movement presented to the Treasury in 2015 in the run up to the Spending Review.
This briefing from the Cultural Learning Alliance covers all aspects of the Department for Education’s English Baccalaureate consultation Nov 2015 -Jan 2016. It details the main arguments as to how the planned reforms affect the teaching and learning of the arts in schools, and links to evidence on the current picture.
This guide includes some simple ideas about how the arts, culture and creative industries can engage with the democratic process. It includes a ‘how to’ guide to holding a hustings in a cultural venue and ways to contact your MP.
It was produced by What Next? Young Vic in partnership with UK Theatre in 2015.
A useful guide for those who already chair, and those who would like to start a What Next? Chapter. Including the key principles of a What Next? meeting, a how-to-chair guide and a sample agenda for a first What Next? meeting.
Following a conversation at a What Next? meeting about the difficult situations cultural organisations can find themselves in when an action sparks controversy – for example, the presentation of a divisive piece of work, or a contentious sponsorship deal – What Next? has produced some practical guidance on ethics. The guidance responds to contributions from organisations across the UK to a What Next? survey on the subject of ethical and reputational challenges and is intended to help leaders meet such challenges with a greater sense of confidence.
“In working to sustain a thriving, vibrant and at times challenging cultural sector, there will be tricky decisions to make and the need to handle difference of opinion. In an increasingly complex world, the more that can be done to approach contention with courage and a zest for debate, the healthier our cultural and civic life. This guidance has been compiled to encourage bold, yet measured decision-making…”
Régis Cochefert, Director, Grants and Programmes, Paul Hamlyn Foundation
Many of the ideas in the document come from survey contributions and the content has been discussed and tested by an advisory group. It has been further informed by interviews across the sector and more widely. It does not attempt to offer definitive answers and every organisation will want to use it in different ways, taking and embedding what is useful to them. We hope the prompts and suggestions are useful and welcome feedback via email.
This toolkit will help you understand and engage with commissioning. Being commissioned provides an opportunity for the arts and cultural sector to deliver contracts for a whole range of public services whilst other funding is under increasing pressure. Commissioning is about identifying people’s needs and deciding how best to use the resources available to improve outcomes for communities.
The toolkit has been produced by Royal Opera House Bridge, Artswork and Kent County Council (KCC) for the UK cultural sector as providers, and the people who might commission them. It includes practical advice and learning from people and organisations in Kent who piloted commissioning for wellbeing in 2014.
Theatres are at the heart of our communities. Let’s shout about how much that matters. When our Councillors are taking tough decisions about how to spend our taxes, they need to know how much we value our local theatre’s work and role in the community. Let’s tell them – my theatre matters!
The 21st century presents us with huge challenges. How can we empower people to be active participants in creating a world we want to live in? In this extract from his annual RSA Chief Executive’s Lecture, Matthew Taylor offers a vision for the future – a world where every individual has the freedom and opportunity to develop their unique capabilities to the full.
The creative industries in the UK are booming and an increasingly important part of the economy, with growth outgunning that in finance and insurance and employment up by 5 per cent between 2013 and 2014 against a 2.1 per cent UK average. But the captains of industry who oversee the million-pound art sales, the publishing companies and the advertising conglomerates that returned £77 billion of direct GVA in 2012-2013 know that it is not just their business acumen that makes them a success story.
For the first time, top British entrepreneurs and business leaders, from Melanie Clore, chairman of Sotheby’s Europe, to Tom Weldon, CEO Penguin Random House, internet businesswoman Baroness Lane-Fox to Caroline Rush, CEO British Fashion Council, explain in this report why they see public investment in culture as crucial to what they do…
The Arts Council has commissioned a series of six monthly audio podcast magazine programmes exploring the innovative use of digital technology in the arts and cultural sector. The series is hosted by arts and culture broadcaster and journalist John Wilson. The podcasts feature discussion and debate from expert studio guests and pioneering case study examples of digital projects from the arts and cultural sectors.
Each programme in the series focuses on one of the themes at the core of the new Digital R&D Fund for the Arts:
The 2015 Report by the Warwick Commission on the Future of Cultural Value, a 12 month inquiry into how Britain can secure greater value from its cultural and creative assets.
A Right to Culture for Every Child is the manifesto document of the Cultural Learning Alliance (CLA).
“The right to culture for every child must be a cornerstone of our national cultural and educational policy. We must ensure equal access for all children and young people to quality arts, cultural and creative learning opportunities.
Nearly 25 years ago the world made a promise to children. The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child – to which the UK is a signatory – states that all nation signatories shall ‘respect and promote the right of the child to participate fully in cultural and artistic life and shall encourage the provision of appropriate and equal opportunities for cultural, artistic, recreational and leisure activity’…”
50p for Culture is a National Campaign for the Arts (NCA) campaign to safeguard and increase local authority investment in arts, museums and heritage. We elect councillors to make tough decisions about where to spend our taxes. They have no obligation to spend on arts, museums and heritage so we need to tell them that’s important to us. The average net spend by local authorities is only 16p per person per week. For every £1 spent by local authorities in England less than half a penny is spent on culture. Take action – visit 50pforculture.org to see what your local council spends on the arts. Find tools and ideas and more.
Ahead of the Chancellor’s Spending Review in November 2015, What Next? wants to make sure we reach as many MPs as possible to tell them about the impact further cuts to our sector will have. We hope that artists, audiences, organisations and individuals will write to their local MP to request a meeting, either at a constituency surgery, at an arts centre or even over the phone, to discuss the importance of culture in the local community and what will be lost with further cuts to arts and local government budgets. We want to tell our story in a way that resonates with MPs, especially Tory MPs, and that will help them understand our concerns quickly. That’s why we’ve come up with the hashtag #Arts4Britain.